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3 edition of How dry is the tropical free troposphere? found in the catalog.

How dry is the tropical free troposphere?

How dry is the tropical free troposphere?

implications for global warming theory


  • 220 Want to read
  • 24 Currently reading

Published by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Technical Information Service, distributor in [Washington, D.C, Springfield, Va .
Written in English

  • Global warming.,
  • Troposphere.,
  • Humidity.,
  • Drying.,
  • Atmospheric general circulation models.

  • Edition Notes

    StatementRoy W. Spencer and William D. Braswell.
    SeriesNASA-TM -- 112887., NASA technical memorandum -- 112887.
    ContributionsBraswell, William D., United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
    The Physical Object
    Pagination1 v.
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL15498492M

    Troposphere, Visbyslätt, Gotlands Län, Sweden. 63 likes. Troposphere is the brainchild of Jev Kapustin, for people who enjoy atmospheric, musical ers: The troposphere contains 75 percent of atmosphere's mass- on an average day the weight of the molecules in the air is lb..(sq. in.)- and most of the atmosphere's water vapor. Water vapor concentration varies from trace amounts in Polar Regions to nearly 4 percent in the tropics. troposphere (trō′pə-sfîr′, trŏp′ə-) n. The lowest region of the atmosphere between the earth's surface and the tropopause, characterized by decreasing temperature with increasing altitude. tro′pospher′ic (-sfîr′ĭk, -sfĕr′-) adj. troposphere (ˈtrɒpəˌsfɪə) n (Physical Geography) the . 2. increased convection detrains more water vapor into the free troposphere 3. more water vapor increases the greenhouse effect, warming the entire troposphere, and keeping it from cooling as efficiently 4. the higher temperatures (hotspot) causes increase IR loss to space, but not enough to counteract the increase greenhouse effect—.

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How dry is the tropical free troposphere? Download PDF EPUB FB2

Depend upon tropical radiosonde data (e.g., Sinha and Allen ) could produce biased results if those tropical stations substantially misrepre-sent the true tropical tropospheric hu-midity distribution.

We will demonstrate that, as the tropical free troposphere becomes drier, 2oo OLRcL Rbecomes more sensitive to small 3oo changes in humidity. How Dry is the Tropical Free Troposphere. and Dr. William Braswell of Nichols Research Corporation. have shown that the low humidity of the tropical free troposphere is playing a previously-overlooked central role in the dynamics of the atmosphere.

The very low humidity in this region allows a larger portion of the infrared radiation to. Get this from a library. How dry is the tropical free troposphere?: implications for global warming theory. [Roy W Spencer; William D Braswell; United States.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration.]. The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place. It contains 75% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of the total mass of water vapour and aerosols.

The average height of the troposphere is 18 km (11 mi; 59, ft) in the tropics, 17 km (11 mi; 56, ft) in the middle latitudes, and 6 km ( mi; 20, ft) in the polar. Jinyou Liang, in Chemical Modeling for Air Resources, Troposphere.

The troposphere, where ~90% of air mass over the Earth resides, refers to the bottom ~10 km of the atmosphere (Figure ).In the troposphere, atmospheric temperature descends upward with a slope of ~10 K km −1 for dry air and ~7 K km −1 for wet air. At night, air temperature at the surface may be lower than.

An atmosphere free of water vapor and impurities is called dry-clean air. The atmosphere is composed primarily of oxygen, nitrogen, and several inert gases, which together account for % of the total air. Excluding carbon dioxide and water vapor, other compositions of.

Dry layers in the free troposphere over Tropical Oceans have been studied for their role in convective activity and for their effects in the radiation budget.

Atmosphere boundary layer (ABL or BL) acts as a pivotal part in the climate by regulating the vertical exchange of moisture, aerosol, trace gases and energy between the earth surface and free troposphere (FT). However, compared with research on the exchange between earth surface and ABL, there are fewer researches on the exchange between ABL and FT, especially when it comes to the quantitative Cited by: 1.

maintain the relative humidity of the subtropical free troposphere. The dominant drying process in the subtropical free troposphere is cross-isentropic subsidence driven by radiative cooling. troposphere: see atmosphereatmosphere [Gr.,=sphere of air], the mixture of gases surrounding a celestial body with sufficient gravity to maintain it.

Although some details about the atmospheres of other planets and satellites are known, only the earth's atmosphere has been well studied, the science of. Click the link for more information. Dry intrusion is an important mid-latitude atmosphere phenomenon within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

It is often found to be related to the cyclogenesis, rainstorm, as well as convection generation and precipitation enhancement. Since the atmosphere environment for any of these above-mentioned weather is terribly complicated, those preexisting popular schemes which takes no Author: Yi-Xuan Shou, Feng Lu, Shaowen Shou.

On moistening of the tropical troposphere by cirrus clouds Steven C. Sherwood Universities Space Research Association, Seabrook, Maryland Abstract.

Sublimation of ice crystals in cirrus clouds is often invoked as a moistening mechanism for the free troposphere, particularly in. Unit 3: THE EARTH’S CLIMATES. Social Sciences 4 2-WEATHER AND CLIMATE Weather is the atmospheric conditions in a certain place at a specific moment.

Climate is the average atmospheric conditions in a certain place over a long period of example, if we say it is hot or raining on a particular place always has hot summers or rainy. Tropical storms Hurricanes Antarctic ozone hole Planetary scale > 10, km Global wind systems Rossby (planetary) waves Dry deposition Gases / aerosols / cloud drops Sedimentation Aerosols / cloud drops / raindrops Free troposphere (T = K.

New Satellite Upper Troposphere Product: Still No Tropical “Hotspot” May 21st, by Roy W. Spencer, Ph. One of the most vivid predictions of global warming theory is a “hotspot” in the tropical upper troposphere, where increased tropical convection responding to warming sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is supposed to cause enhanced.

An Atlantic hurricane or tropical storm is a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean, usually between the months of June and November.A hurricane differs from a cyclone or typhoon only on the basis of location.

A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a cyclone occurs in the south.

The focus is on elucidating the processes that maintain the relative humidity of the subtropical free troposphere.

The dominant drying process in the subtropical free troposphere is cross-isentropic subsidence driven by radiative by: Why is Troposphere called as weather making layer. Answer: The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere.

It is also known as the weather-making zone because all physical processes of weather, like wind, clouds, storms, rainfall, mist, fog and hail, occur here. Atmosphere Additional Questions. Choose the correct answer. Question 1. Tropospheric temperature trends: history of an ongoing controversy Peter W.

Thorne,1,2∗ John R. Lanzante,3 Thomas C. Peterson,4 Dian J. Seidel5 and Keith P. Shine6 Changes in atmospheric temperature have a particular importance in climate research because climate models consistently predict a distinctive vertical profile of trends. Hydroxyl is a short-lived free radical and by far the most effective scavenger in the troposphere.

It is the main oxidant for CO, CH 4 and higher hydrocarbons, H 2 S (hydrogen sulfide) and SO 2 (sulfur dioxide). Its sinks in different environments is shown in Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5. The nitrate radical NO 3. what time of the day it is.

In the cold, dry artic regions water vapor usually accounts for less than 1% of the atmosphere, while in humid, tropical regions water vapor can account for almost 4% of the atmosphere. Water vapor content is very important in predicting weather.

most important oxidant in the troposphere is the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which is also called the ’cleaning agent’ of the atmosphere [Crutzen and Zimmermann, ], as it is able to react with almost every organic and even many inorganic molecules. Other oxidants in the troposphere include for instance NO3, H2O2, and also ozone.

Of much. Search for abbreviation meaning, word to abbreviate, or lists of abbreviations. You may combine abbreviation and category.

e.g. "PC computing". Layer (SAL) over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic, which cools the sea surface. To understand the formation mechanisms of a dust layer in the free troposphere, this study combines model simulations and dust observations collected during the first stage of.

The lower troposphere (below ~2 km) and upper troposphere (11–16 km) are warmer in dry spell than in wet spell. Between 2 and 11 km, the temperature difference between spells is small (the temperature is higher in wet spell than in dry spell in two height regions, 2–5 and 9– km).Author: Mohana S.

Thota. The climate models predict that there should be a strong warming signal in the tropical troposphere, far up above the clouds. The reason is that warming should lead to more water vapor reaching higher up into the atmosphere, and since it is the strongest of all greenhouse gases, it should be warming like crazy : Onar Åm.

The troposphere is one of five layers of the atmosphere surrounding the earth. The other four layers include the stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere, closest to the earth's surface. Its depth is different at different regions of the earth, being deeper in the warmer regions and shallower in the colder regions.

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Studies (Geography) Chapter 4 – Air. Answer the following questions. (i) What is the atmosphere. Answer: The blanket of air surrounding the earth is called the atmosphere primarily comprises nitrogen and oxygen in bulk and other gases like carbon dioxide, helium, ozone, etc in lesser quantities.

This chapter covers remote sensing, the primary method of observing weather and climate across the global tropics.

Learners will become familiar with the scientific basis and applications of radar and satellite remote sensing from examples in which clouds and precipitation are observed by measuring microwave signals using ground-based radar, spaceborne radar, and satellite radiometers.

@article{osti_, title = {Transport of ozone in the troposphere}, author = {Spicer, C.W.}, abstractNote = {The paper discusses ozone behavior based on data collected in the Midwest and in New England for 2 summers.

Results of studies indicate that meteorology can influence the ground-level ozone concentration by affecting: concentration of precursors, sunlight intensity, air mass. The border between the troposphere and stratosphere, called the tropopause, is a temperature inversion.

Terms in this set (5) drought. a long period of dry weather. water cycle. the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back.

wind. the act of winding or twisting. The lowest layer of the atmosphere called the troposphere. It rises between 4,97 miles (8 km) at the poles and 9,94 miles (16 km) above the equator. The boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere is the tropopause, defined by stabilized temperatures.

The temperature decreases with increasing altitude of 33,08°F (0,60°C) every m. The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere.

The troposphere starts at Earth's surface and goes up to a height of 7 to 20 km (4 to 12 miles, or 23, to 65, feet) above sea level.

Most of the mass (about %) of the atmosphere is in the troposphere. Almost all weather occurs within this layer. Air is warmest at the bottom. David Randall (Princeton University Press, ), pp, $, ISBN (paper); ISBN (hardcover).

This book is a volume in the series “Princeton Primers in Climate.” Author David Randall, a professor of atmospheric science at Colorado State University, describes his goals in the preface: “to teach you something about the role of atmospheric processes. @article{osti_, title = {Global 3-d modeling of atmospheric ozone in the free troposphere and the stratosphere with emphasis on midlatitude regions.

Final report, July 1, J }, author = {Brasseur, G and Erickson, D and Tie, X and Walter, S}, abstractNote = {The objective of this research is to use global chemical-transport models to study the chemical and dynamical. The tropical zodiac, also called the moving zodiac, is the familiar circle of 12 signs that begins at 0° Aries (the point where the Sun is located at the spring equinox).

Because of the precession of equinoxes, the equinox point changes slightly so that each year it moves farther and farther back when looked at against the background of the stars. The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's of the mass (about %) of the atmosphere is in the troposphere.

Most types of clouds are found in the troposphere, and almost all weather occurs within this layer. The troposphere is by far the wettest layer of the atmosphere; all of the layers above contain very little moisture.

Troposphere definition: the lowest atmospheric layer, about 18 kilometres (11 miles) thick at the equator to | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples. Atmospheric dispersion modeling is the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse in the ambient is performed with computer programs that include algorithms to solve the mathematical equations that govern the pollutant dispersion.

The dispersion models are used to estimate the downwind ambient concentration of air pollutants or toxins emitted from sources such as f {\displaystyle f}: = crosswind dispersion parameter.

The troposphere is the innermost layer of Earth’s atmosphere. Closest to the surface of Earth, we have the troposphere. “Tropos” means change. This layer gets its name from the weather that is constantly changing and mixing up the gases in this part of our atmosphere.

The troposphere is between 5 and 9 miles (8 and 14 kilometers) thick. The troposphere is the lowest part of Earth's contains about 75% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapor and height is about 15 km. It is taller in the tropics (20 km) and shorter at the poles (7 km).

The troposphere is where Earth's weather like rain, snow, thunder, or storms occur. Clouds can form up to a height of 10–15 km.In the free troposphere conditions for sulfate nucleation are easier met than in the MBL (Clarke, ); newly formed particles can find their ways into the lower atmosphere.

Modelling studies by Raes () have shown that the upper troposphere is a major source of sulfate nuclei in the MBL.The temperature gets colder as you go upward in the troposphere. Light from the Sun heats the ground. The warm ground gives off the heat as infrared "light".The IR energy heats the lowest part of the troposphere is the warmest because it is closest to the ground, where the heat is coming from.